Our in-house experts specialize in World War II and Cold War era defense operations and consistently support manufacturers and government-owned contractor-operated facilities with environmental and litigation risk assessment, expert witness testimony, modeling, data analysis, and related services for contaminated sites, including formerly utilized defense sites, closed military and manufacturing sites, legacy sites and fully-operational active sites. Many of these sites have served numerous military and strategic defense operations and have also served commercial and non-military efforts as well. Specifically, we have performed more than a dozen historic operational reviews of military bases, World War II era installations, proving grounds, arsenals, and additional government-owned manufacturing plants to investigate and ascertain sources of environmental contamination as well as determine environmental standard of care compliance. Our researchers are skilled in analyzing military specifications; aircraft design; munitions use and disposal; strategic chemical and materials operations; historic manufacturing procedures; assembly and shake-out protocols; fuel storage; vapor degreasing; plating; anodizing; and other defense operations. To support our work in this area we maintain an extensive historic database of technical and scientific papers and military and manufacturing specifications, contracts and standards. We draw on these resources, nearly three decades of site investigation experience, and advanced technical knowledge to explain contaminant transport, identify contaminant sources, and identify the likely timeframes for occurrences.